Readings on FoE Australia history FoE Australia history blog FoE Australia a short history from the early 1970s to 2014 from Chain Reaction 123, April 2015 FoE Australia, 2004, '30 Years of Creative Resistance' PDF Peter Hayes account of the early years of FoE Australia and in particular FoE Melbourne 'Founding Friends of the Earth Australia the Early Years' FoE Australia was founded in 1974 at a meeting on French Island in Westernport Bay, Victoria, which was then the site for a proposed nuclear reactor. From its creation, FoE in Australia has identified itself as a radical ecology group that recognised the need to move to sustainable and equitable social systems to be able to protect the environment in the long term. This meant that from its beginnings, FoE has placed considerable effort on achieving this change rather than simply lobbying existing governments. The first Friends of the Earth FoE group in Australia was formed in Adelaide in 1972, one of a number of organisations that grew out of a group called Social Action. In early 1973, FoE was established in Melbourne. These early organisations, based in the broad social movements that were forming across Australia and around the world, were products of their times. FoE was established in the early stages of the social transformation happening across Australia that had been influenced by similar movements elsewhere in the 1970's. There was a growing public awareness of ecology, the land rights movement was becoming increasingly militant, and the NSW Builders Labourers Federation BLF under the leadership of Jack Mundey was profoundly changing roles of trade unions as it took a leading position on a range of social and environmental concerns. The alternative lifestyle counter culture had held a number of enormous gatherings and the women's and gay liberation movements were prominent and dynamic. Against this social backdrop, FoE, based on the concept of radical grassroots environmental action, took off like wildfire. For many, the new network structure of FoE was important because it offered an alternative to the often hierarchical structures of many other 'establishment' styled national environment groups. Over the last 40 years, FoE has evolved into a diverse and vibrant network of groups that are working at the local, regional, national and international level. Timeline of some significant campaign victories and organisational events FoE Australia 1972 The first FoE group in Australia forms in 1972 at Adelaide University, campaigning on issues including waste, pollution, Coca Cola and French nuclear tests in the Pacific. Following a high profile campaign against Coca Cola, a PR firm infiltrates FoE Adelaide to encourage the group to stop campaigning against the steel company BHP. BHP gives FoE Adelaide $3,900 to make a film about recycling, which FoE Adelaide turns into an expos of the company itself. FoE's origins contrast to some of the slightly older environmental organisations that FoE activist Neil Barrett describes in 1976 as the "establishment, governmentfunded groups which sprang out of an older style, middle class movement". 1973 Peter Hayes writes "As soon as I arrived back in Australia in late 1973, I began to organize or rather, activate Friends of the Earth in Australia. A couple of tiny groups had already begun to use the name one by a high school student in Melbourne somewhere, and one in South Australia. I was inspired by the concept of a loose, networked federation, based on the notion of ecological autogestion, or green self management." 1974 First meeting of FoE Australia, held on French Island in Western Port Bay, Victoria, the proposed site of a nuclear power reactor. Through the 1970s, FoE campaigns extensively to protect Antarctica. FoE publishes 'Antarctica World Law and the Last Wilderness', and with other groups forms the Antarctica and Southern Oceans Coalition. The campaign waged in the public realm in Australia and through international negotiating meetings succeeds. The Madrid Protocol bans mining in Antarctica for at least 50 years. FoE releases a video of BHP dumping steel at sea with resulting national media coverage. Peter Hayes writes "In early 1974, I went to Tasmania to meet with Leigh Holloway who had established the Tasmanian Environment Centre. ... We had already helped take over the Australian Conservation Foundation ACF in October 1973 at the ACF's annual general meeting in Canberra as payback for a series of catastrophic decisions by the ACF's conservative establishment board to not back environmental causes, including Lake Pedder. ... "Not unreasonably, while I was in Hobart Leigh asked me why we needed FoE when we had taken over the ACF I answered that they were not competitive but complementary that by its very structure ACF would always be slow and relatively muted by virtue of its relationship with governments. We needed a network that by its very nature could never be stopped by the powersthatbe. ... Leigh agreed and eventually became one of FoE's most effective organizers, bridging the gap between grassroots social campaigns and ACF as a councillor along with FoE's Strider and Frank Muller. ACF was reconstituting itself to respond to Green Bans, land rights, and other structural issues such as energy supply that ACF had previously shunned." FoE Melbourne has its first victory saving Baw Baw frogs from a proposed ski run development. Chain Reaction magazine starts initially as Greenpeace Pacific Bulletin. Peter Hayes writes "FOE Melbourne's first order of business in 1974 was to organize a "Greenpeace Action" in the form of supporting an Australian vessel to sail to Moruroa in mid1974. This was before Greenpeace existed as an organized entity in Australia. In 1972, a "Greenpeace" vessel captained by David McTaggart had sailed to Moruroa, and Greenpeace in Canada was just starting to get organized. I did not want a Greenpeace entity, but rather, a Greenpeace action that would embody FoE's mission and exemplify our style. This took the form of Rolf Heimann's Tahiti ketch that left from St. Kilda pier of a speech by Jim Cairns and to the sounds of a jazz band. ... To support Rolf's voyage, we began to publish Greenpeace Pacific Bulletins and raising money. I think there were a couple, likely one at start of 1974, and a second in winter 74. This morphed into the FoE magazine Chain Reaction ..." In 1974, FoE Adelaide is involved in discussions with the Australia Party and the Plumbers and Gasfitters Union and establishes the Campaign Against Nuclear Energy CANE, which is formally launched in March 1975. 1975 By 1975 there are FoE groups in Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne, the Illawarra, Tasmania, Queensland and WA. FoE Melbourne's food cooperative is established and is still going strong 40 years later! FoE organises a Ride Against Uranium 250 people ride from Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide to Canberra, where Bill Liechacz from FoE NSW burns the coffin of the "ALP Conscience" with a flame kindled by his solar cooker. In 1976, 400 riders participate. The ride built FoE's profile to such an extent that, in the words of Chain Reaction editor Richard Nankin, "we now work in overcrowded offices, with people coming and going at all hours, the phones always ringing madly". FoE antiuranium activists track the federal government's Ranger uranium inquiry a.k.a. Fox inquiry around the country, by train and hitchhiking. The Age says that it is the 300page FoE submission that "mostly shaped the major qualms expressed by the Fox report" and that "at the moment, FoE could rightly claim to be the most potent environmental group in the country". FoE Melbourne conducts a muchpublicised "lavatory sitin" at Melbourne Airport to protest against Concorde aircraft, complaining about "superexpenditure for a superluxury". Peter Hayes writes "We felt that humor was an important weapon which we tried to weave into many of our protests, and this was one of them." The British Aircraft Corporation maintains a "bemused upper lip". The Australian Transport Minister threatens to sue FoE for $1 million in relation to the FoE pamphlet, 'British Airways is Taking Australia for a Ride'. An editorial in The Age urges FoE to step out of the toilets and to worship at the shrine of technological progress. FoE campaigns against massive high rise developments in inner Sydney, in support of the famous Green Bans. Robert Tickner is the convenor of FoE's urban campaign and later becomes the Federal Minister for Aboriginal Affairs. FoE Melbourne campaigns on the problem of lead in petrol. The oil industry fights back, but with strong community education, this issue is won in the mid1980s by a campaign for leadfree petrol led again by FoE. 1976 The Age newspaper describes the FoE Melbourne office as a "barely furnished terrace house in Carlton there is no obvious indication that FoE lives in at least 16 other countries, is represented on the UN Environment Program, and ... has so far gained support of not just the left wing unions but professional organisations and church groups ... the office workers are fairly young, well educated and poor". FoE Sydney hosts a speaking tour by Dale Bridenbaugh, an engineer with General Electric in the USA, on GE's nuclear safety problems and in particular problems with the boiling water reactor design. Thirtyfive years later, those design flaws are exposed in the Fukushima disaster in Japan. Early editions of Chain Reaction carry generic appeals from FoE's 'Leak Bureau' asking corporate or governmental whistleblowers to provide information. In 1976, a whistleblower from Mary Kathleen Uranium Mining leaks documents to FoE revealing the existence of a global uranium cartel, leading to protracted international scandals and fines totalling hundreds of millions of dollars. FoE sets up the AtomFree Embassy outside the Australian Atomic Energy Commission Lucas Heights in November 1976. A gunshot is fired over the Embassy one night. A tepee is established at the Embassy to function as the local branch of the FoE Leak Bureau oddly, information is leaked about secret solar energy research at the Lucas Heights site. Vege and herb gardens are established. Lockons and truck blockades. 1977 A "vast influx of active and angry people" to FoE groups. FoE does extensive work on renewable energy options for Australia. Ride against uranium Melbourne to Canberra. FoE is involved in actions preventing the loading and shipping of uranium from wharfs in Sydney and Melbourne. Chain Reaction publishes an apology for its lateness "Absenteeism reached 100 during the Swanston Dock actions where mounted police led a charge over the top of protesters sitting on a wharf beside a ship loaded with Australian uranium. Commenting on the police's heavyhanded tactics at the protest, Chief Police Commissioner Miller says 'I'd use elephants if I had them.'" In Port Pirie, 200 kms north of Adelaide, a group of concerned people get together to campaign on the radiation risks from the Port Pirie Uranium Treatment Complex and set up a FoE group. In 1981, exceptionally high tides breach the wall of the tailings dam, and some materials are flushed out to sea. As a result of FoE's lobbying of the Minister of Mines and Energy, the dams are eventually stabilised in 1982 by being covered with a metre of slag from nearby mines. FoE then turns its attention to lead, as the Port Pirie smelter is too close to the town and poses a considerable health risk. In 1977 the barricades are thrown up on Alexandra Parade in the inner suburb of Collingwood Melbourne to oppose the construction of the F19 later renamed the Eastern Freeway. With strong community support, this campaign is a key activity for FoE. Dozens of protesters are arrested and several are seriously injured. Almost all FoE groups are working on nuclear and whaling issues among others. Peter Hayes writes "FoE Melbourne also mobilized in 1977 to organize protests around the International Whaling Commission in Canberra in June, in coordination with FoE Canberra and the separate Project Jonah. Barbara Belding who had worked with Project Jonah in California attended for FoE International. She first came to Melbourne and we travelled together to Canberra. ... The meeting was held in a hotel near the lake and close to ANU. ... The event itself was a lot of fun, with Project Jonah inflating a giant plastic Willie the Whale in the corridor housing Japanese delegates, trapping them in the rooms. The police slashing of Willie generated global publicity for the protest." 1978 A Women's Edition of Chain Reaction has articles on sexism in the environment movement women at work and several articles on feminism, sexism and the nuclear industry. A letter in Chain Reaction says FoE Sydney and Melbourne are mostly male but "joyfully nonoppressive". FoE leaks draft Bills to amend the Atomic Energy Act. The Act allows up to 20 years prison for releasing 'restricted information'. FoE is among the few official parties to the Inquiry into Whales and Whaling in 1978. Following the announcement that the last whaling station at Albany WA is going to close down, FoE campaigns for a whale sanctuary in Australian territorial waters, a ban on the import of whale products, and for Australia to take a proactive role in international forums to secure global protection for all species of whale from commercial operations. Author and cartoonist Rolf Heimann is jailed after protesting the visit to Australia of a nuclear submarine. Several years earlier, Heimann took his yacht to join the flotilla protesting French nuclear tests at Moruroa. His book, 'Knocking on Heaven's Door', is published by FoE and gives an insightful 'activist travelogue' of opposition to the testing and deeper issues of cultural and political independence in the Pacific. FoE also publishes a book of cartoons by Heimann with a foreword "by our old friend Spike Milligan". 1979 Due to intense campaigning by many groups, including FoE, the federal government places a total ban on whaling in Australian waters. Chain Reaction reports that Joh BjelkePeterson supports nuclear power, having previously advocated the use of nuclear weapons 'peaceful nuclear explosives' to halt the progress of the Crown of Thorns Starfish on the Great Barrier Reef. "Fortunately, the starfish seemed to have slackened off of their own accord possibly tipped off by somebody!" There are 46 FoE groups spread throughout the country. 1980 In the 1980s, there is a shift to more targeted solidarity campaigning with the rise of the Food Justice Centre, the struggle against apartheid, links with liberation struggles in Latin America and elsewhere, and growing campaigning on Australian indigenous issues. With the backdrop of the cold war and nuclear proliferation, peace and disarmament issues receive greatest attention during the later 1980s. FoE Melbourne establishes a Food Justice Centre to work on plant variety rights at a time when patenting of seeds begins to pose a grave threat to subsistence farmers around the world. Other concerns include the use of harmful chemicals in Southern nations and corporate ownership and control of food. FoE hosts the Politics of Food conference in Melbourne. FoE sponsors a visit to Australia by US consumer advocate Ralph Nader. A Nuclear Free Embassy is set up in a small park near Lucas Heights, but stays for just one week a brick is thrown at a tent so the Embassy moves to Glebe Island at the invitation of wharfies. FoE Melbourne starts Musicians Against Nuclear Energy MANE including dozens of musicians and bands such as Redgum, Australian Crawl, The Angels, Jo Jo Zep and the Falcons, Atilla and the Panel Beaters, and the Incredible Shambles Band. FoE helps fund the 'Dirt Cheap' film exposing the manipulation of Mirarr Traditional Owners by the Fraser federal government and the Northern Land Council. The ALP government in Victoria signs a joint venture agreement with Alcoa over plans to build an aluminium smelter at Portland. A site is selected adjacent to the town itself. This area is of significance to the local traditional owners, the GournditchJmara people. FoE participates in an occupation of the site from September 1980. Despite a successful High Court challenge, the site is bulldozed. Aboriginal artefacts are destroyed and the smelter is built. 1981 FoE, the Merchant Services Guild and other unions highlight the trial of offshore dumping of waste from paper mills. Offshore dumping is subsequently banned. In 1981, a faction of the Chain Reaction editorial collective moves office in the middle of the night to 'save' the magazine from those they regard as not having the "responsibilities we had to the wider national FoE and environmentalist constituency". This may have been due, at least partly, to the size of the editorial collective a 1981 edition of the magazine credits 45 people as being involved with editorial decisions. Those credited include people who go on to become Senators, local councillors, authors, an adviser to Paul Keating, and the first energy minister in the Victorian Bracks' Government. 1982 In 1982 there are 20 local groups and FoE Australia adopts a new constitution acknowledging local groups as the focus of operations. This seems to mark a shift in the way FoE operates, away from a focus on national collaboration and towards more locally focused activity and greater strategic engagement with other social movements. A recycling campaign is established in Melbourne, aiming to introduce national beverage container deposit legislation. FoE Brisbane is involved in community protests against retrogressive land rights legislation. Atom Free Embassy established in Canberra. The world bikeride for peace, from Canberra to Darwin, highlights Australia's involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. Blockades at Honeymoon uranium mine in SA in 1982 and Roxby Downs in 1983 and '84, organised by an umbrella grouping called the Coalition for a Nuclear Free Australia. These actions concentrate on 'hindering and frustrating' work at the mines, in order to delay their completion and to raise community awareness. The Australian Mining Journal notes that FoE plays a 'leading role' in these blockades. In a series of letters and articles in Chain Reaction, many women express opinions like that of Margie Kaye, who says "the environment movement over the last 10 years has continually failed to examine sexism within its internal structures". In 1982, Denise Chevalier writes on behalf of FoE Collingwood "We, the women at FoE, have fought hard for what we have achieved. We have far more women than men working with us. The women are now at the fore in the decision making in all our campaigns". 1983 Waste minimisation in general and recycling in particular grow as issues, involving FoE groups in Victoria, SA, NSW and elsewhere. The dominant campaign focuses on demands to legislate for deposits to be paid on drink containers. FoE campaigns on the dieback of native forests on New England tablelands, NSW. Fruit and vegie coop is established in Melbourne as a project of the Food Justice Centre. In 1983, plans are floated for leach mining of gold in Victoria. FoE Melbourne works with the Aboriginal Mining Information Centre as part of a successful campaign to stop this destructive form of mining. FoE is involved in the Hazardous Chemicals Collective, which campaigns on issues including the bulk chemical facility located at Coode Island in Melbourne's inner west and undertakes groundbreaking work on the threats posed by dioxins. FoE's strong and growing emphasis on social justice is not appreciated by everyone. "I am dismayed at the shift in Chain Reaction from environmental towards social/political issues such as feminism and homosexuality", wrote one reader in 1983. However, in general there is a clear sense that social justice issues form a part of the 'core business' of what FoE should be doing. 1984 Victory in seed variety rights campaign the ALP policy stops short of allowing plant patenting for cereals. FoE campaigns to halt a sewerage outfall into Wimmera River, Victoria. FoE tours international author Jim Harding 'Tools for the soft path' to raise awareness of alternative energy sources. FoE Willunga is set up in the coastal town south of Adelaide in 1984. It helps ensure protection of the Aldinga Reef from runoff from adjacent farmland and roads and Aldinga Scrub, a significant pocket of remnant bush in an area with very limited original vegetation. Through coordinated work with the Kaurna people, the local traditional owners, FoE Willunga works to secure protection for sections of the Tjilbruke Dreaming track that are threatened by development and other forms of interference. 1985 FoE Ryde Sydney discovers radioactive waste from a CSIRO complex in drains in a recreation park in Sydney. Campaign against uranium mining in Kakadu. 1986 Campaign against visits by nuclearpowered ships to Victorian ports. FoE Oakleigh saves a 14 hectare strip of heathland part of a system that once spread across Melbourne's sandbelt region from being turned into a soccer ground. FoE and the Movement Against Uranium Mining MAUM occupy the Uranium Information Centre in Melbourne. Peter Milton, Labor MP for the seat of La Trobe and later a longterm FoE member, is one of the MPs who causes an uproar by walking out on Paul Keating's budget speech when the treasurer announces the government's decision to resume uranium sales to France. 1987 FoE campaigns for a moratorium on the release of GMOs. 1988 Australian Bicentenary FoE supports actions against the celebrations, including the 45,000 strong march in Sydney on Invasion Day. FoE campaigns against food irradiation and organises a national tour by irradiation expert Tony Webb. FoE produces 'soft energy' booklet on renewable energy. FoE Collingwood moves to Brunswick St, Fitzroy, where it operates a community arts space for the next five years. This gallery provides an early foothold for Indigenous art from central Australia and the western desert region before it is widely available. 1989 FoE campaigns on the use of dioxins in paper and other consumer products. Campaign against photo degradable plastics a shortlived fad. A victory against mineral sands mining in Victoria. FoE hosts a series of national waste minimisation conferences during the late 1980s. A campaign led by FoE leads to the introduction of Australianmade recycled paper. In the 1980s, FoE Adelaide set up a 'slow food' caf in Torrensville. In 1989, the group establishes itself as the Green Party of SA. Subsequently, a new FoE group is established in Adelaide and gets involved in green city activism, including the Green City Program, which focuses on citywide sustainability issues for Adelaide, and helps initiate the Halifax urban development in inner Adelaide. 1990 Uranium shipments from Roxby Downs blockaded in Adelaide. First FoE Radioactive Exposure Tour in SA. These continue to this day, educating people about the social and environmental impacts of the nuclear industry. Alliances with various Indigenous communities campaigning against issues such as sand mining on North Stradbroke Island Minjeribah in Queensland, and blockades of logging operations in western Victoria. FoE Maryborough plays a leading role in the yearlong blockade on Fraser island against logging of old growth forests. Rainforest Action Group plays a significant role in ending logging operations on the island. FoE Melbourne starts to Pay the Rent to Aboriginal traditional owners as does FoE Australia in 1993. Soft energy group starts in Melbourne, researching and advocating for renewable energy. Climate change campaign starts. FoE launches a proposal for national waste strategy aiming at a 50 reduction by 2000. Clare Henderson and Larry O'Loughlan are prominent national advocates of Right To Know RTK legislation in the early 1990s. RTK refers to the right of people to access information on the existence, quantities and effects of emissions from industrial activities. 1991 FoE supports a campaign to stop the establishment of a McDonalds restaurant in the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. In November 1991, the Australian International Defence Exhibition AIDEX is held in Canberra. This is a trade fair for weapons manufacturers, and several thousand people demonstrate outside the National Exhibition Centre. FoE does much of the organising of events, and people from Melbourne help coordinate actions at the blockades and run the camp established for the duration of the exhibition. The following year, FoE works with a range of groups under the umbrella of the Disarm the Skies Campaign Coalition to organise actions outside the Aerospace Expo at Avalon, west of Melbourne 'AIDEX on wings'. FoE is heavily involved in community mobilisations against Australian involvement in the Gulf War FoE Melbourne building ransacked in a nighttime breakin. In August 1991, the bulk chemical facility at Coode Island in inner western Melbourne suffers a major fire and a toxic cloud descends over much of the city. An inquiry is held into the possible relocation of the facility to Point Lillias, a headland on Port Phillip Bay near Geelong. The situation is complicated by plans to locate a naval arms complex on the same headland the East Coast Armaments Complex. FoE works with a range of other groups throughout the parallel state and federal inquiries into the relocation of these facilities under the banner of the Combined Environment Groups. In the end, neither facility was moved to Point Lillias. FoE Maryborough begins on the mid north coast of Queensland and continues to monitor threats to Fraser Island and the broader region. Although a number of green groups have laid claim to 'saving' Fraser Island, the role of FoE Maryborough has not received the recognition it deserves in the successful campaign to end logging. Activists Ross and Karen Daniel and Zephyr L'Green are pivotal in the group that keeps the base camp on the Island running for a whole year of blockading. Without the blockades, there would have been far less pressure on the state and federal governments to end logging on the island. 1992 FoE Sydney report 'Bring Back Returnables' is a significant contribution to the debate on recycling. Water campaign is established at FoE Melbourne. GMO campaign starts in Melbourne. FoE collaborates with the Arabunna People's Committee in an unsuccessful effort to gain World Heritage listing for the Lake Eyre Basin. The SA Liberal government offers to host a national radioactive waste dump in the region if the federal Labor government drops the World Heritage proposal. The East Gippsland Forest Network EGFN merges with FoE Melbourne. The EGFN had itself grown from Melbourne Rainforest Action Group in the late 1980s. The creation of the FoE Melbourne Forest Network and the energy of a new generation of activists results in more than five years of intense campaigning to protect Victoria's forests. Over the summer of 199394, FoE Melbourne joins the Wilderness Society and Concerned Residents of East Gippsland to form the East Gippsland Forest Alliance. Ontheground blockades and campaigning continue and have helped win considerable gains in terms of forest protection. The years under the Victorian Kennett state government 199299 mark a time of significant community politicisation and unprecedented resistance at the grassroots level in Melbourne and across the state. FoE plays a significant role in many struggles, both in terms of physical involvement of staff and members in picket lines and campaigns, and also behind the scenes in the training of nonviolent action, police liaison, and other aspects of community organising. 1993 FoE is involved in the national protest action held outside the Nurrungar US base near Woomera in SA. The campaign work involves close cooperation with the Kokatha traditional owners, and increased public debate over the nature of the alliance with the US and the deployment of troops to secure the base. Nurrungar is closed in 1999, with protest actions cited as one reason for the closure. In 1993, FoE Melbourne begins working with Wadjularbinna, a Gungalidda woman from the Doomadgee community in the Gulf country of north Queensland. Many within the Gungalidda community are opposing plans by CRA to develop the Century Zinc deposit at Lawn Hill, 250 kms northwest of Mt Isa. FoE Melbourne holds actions outside the CRA AGM in Melbourne and raises the issue in the AGM itself as part of a campaign that runs for several years. Largely through the efforts of Lee Tan, these campaign links develop into a broader informal alliance. FoE Melbourne activists subsequently help establish the Bugajinda/Moonlight outstation project which includes the construction of basic facilities that allow members of the Moonlight clan to visit their country on a more regular basis, and form the beginning of an eco and cultural tourism business. A forest campaign is launched in Victoria blockades are launched in East Gippsland through an alliance of FoE and other groups. National waste minimisation strategy launched. FoE Melbourne establishes a Water Collective to work on bigpicture infrastructure developments, a Melbourne Water review of its sewerage strategy, and many local issues. The Collective is explicitly bioregional in its approach, concentrating on the catchments of Port Phillip and Western Port Bays. It produces the book 'Not Just Down the Drain', focusing on domestic reuse of grey water. 1994 FoE Melbourne works with the Kerrup Jmara community to set up a tent embassy in the main street of Portland, to protest endemic racism against the Aboriginal community and specific incidents of discrimination around policing and the provision of health services. Campaign to stop an oil terminal in Western Port Bay, Vic. FoE is a pivotal force in the Coalition Against Freeway Extensions CAFE, Victoria. CAFE activists blockade road building operations on Alexandra Parade for over a month. FoE Melbourne and other activists join in a series of arrestable actions that obstruct road works. Eventually all but one of the arrestees have their charges dropped. FoE hosts Shripad Dharmadhikary of Narmada Bachao Andolan Save Narmada Movement, as part of the '50 years are enough' campaign, aimed at radical reform of the World Bank. FoE launches a national wetlands campaign. FoE Melbourne helps establish the Otway Ranges Environment Network OREN. In 1996, it achieves the first prosecution for a breach of a logging permit on private land in Victoria. With the support of the Environmental Defenders Office, FoE Melbourne takes a case to the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal, successfully targeting a timber company with links to a minister in the Kennett government. This victory highlights the scale of problems from logging on private land across the state. FoE activist Anthony Amis spends much of the rest of the decade working to highlight often disastrous logging regimes on private land. He also relentlessly monitors forestry operations on the estate of the Victorian Plantation Corporation once it was privatised and sold by the Kennett government in 1998 to Hancocks, a USbased insurance company. 1995 Successful campaign against resiting of the East Coast Armaments Complex. French nuclear tests in the Pacific FoE plays a key role in community mobilisations. FoE blockades a train carrying logs to highlight the ecological and social costs of the woodchip industry. 1996 Following the election of the Howard Coalition government in 1996, FoE campaigns against the privatisation of Telstra and speaks out on the blackmail inherent in linking funding of an essential portfolio in this instance the environment with the partial sale of a public asset Telstra. Ramsar conference on wetlands held in Brisbane marks the beginning of a much greater involvement of FoE Australia in the FoE International network. North East Conservation Alliance launched in Victoria after FoE initiative. 'Streets for People' transport campaign launched. Campaign analysis shows need for more inner city bike paths when local governments refuse, FoE paints its own, quickly followed by formal recognition. Paper boyc


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